Wormholes play an important role in many science fiction films – often as a shortcut between two distant points in space. In physics, however, these tunnels in spacetime are entirely imaginary.

Dr. of Oldenburg University An international team led by Jose Luis Blazquez-Salcedo have now presented a new theoretical model in the science journal Physical Review Letters that creates micro-worms that seem less far-fetched than previous theories.

Wormholes, like black holes, appear in Albert Einstein’s equations of general relativism published in 1916. An important indication of Einstein’s theory is that the universe has four dimensions — three spatial dimensions and time as the fourth dimension.

Together they form what is known as spacetime, and spacetime can be extended and curved by massive objects such as stars, much as a rubber sheet would be curved by dipping a metal ball into it.

The curvature of spacetime determines objects such as spacecraft and planets, but also light, moving within it. “In theory, spacetime can also be bent and curved without large-scale objects,” says Blazquez-Salledo, who has since transferred to the Computence University of Madrid in Spain.

In this scenario, a wormhole spacetime would have a highly curved field that resembles two interconnected funnels and connects two distant points in space like a tunnel. “Such a shortcut would be possible from a mathematical point of view, but no one has observed the actual wormhole,” explains the physicist.

In addition, such wormholes would be unstable. If for example a spacecraft were to fly into one, it would immediately fall into a black hole – an object in which matter vanished, never to appear again. Connections provided to it at other places in the universe will be cut off.

Previous models suggest that the only way to keep the wormhole open is by a foreign form that has negative mass, or in other words its weight is less than nothing, and which exists only in theory.

However, Blázquez-Salcedo and his colleagues from the University of Oldenburg, Drs. Eugen Radu from the Universidade de Aveiro in Christian Knoll and Portugal demonstrate in their models that wormholes can also be traversable without talking.

The researchers chose a relatively simple “half-yearly” approach. He combined elements of relativity theory with elements of quantum theory and classic electrodynamics theory.

In their model they consider some elementary particles such as electrons and their electric charge that pass through the wormhole. As a mathematical description, he chose the Dirac equation, a formula that describes the probability density function of a particle according to quantum theory and relativity, which is the so-called Dirac field.

As physicists report in their study, it is the inclusion of the diac region in their model that allows for the existence of a wormhole by case, provided that the ratio between the electric charge and the mass of the wormhole exceeds a certain threshold.

Be more In addition to matter, signals — for example electromagnetic waves — can also cross small tunnels in spacetime.

Microscopic wormholes posted by the team would probably not be suitable for interstellar travel. Furthermore, the model would have to be further refined to find out whether such unusual structures may actually exist. “We think that wormholes may also exist in a complete model,” Blazkez-Salcedo says.